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A comparative study of SOx, NOx, PM2.5 and PM10 in the UK and Poland from 1970 to 2020.pdf (6.38 MB)

A Comparative Study of SOx, NOx, PM2.5 and PM10 in the UK and Poland from 1970 to 2020

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posted on 2024-06-10, 11:27 authored by Zofia Syrek-Gerstenkorn, Berenika Syrek-Gerstenkorn, Shiladitya Paul

Presently, there is growing discourse surrounding climate change, global warming, and the possibility of urban smog. Daily, we encounter air pollutants unwittingly, often oblivious to the substantial adverse impacts they may impart on our health. This manuscript furnishes a thorough examination of the shifts in the concentrations of distinct air pollutants, namely, sulphur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter PM2.5 and PM10, within the contexts of the United Kingdom (a country progressively transitioning to alternative energy sources) and Poland (a country in the EU with the second lowest climate policy evaluation in the climate change performance index or CCPI) from 1970 to 2020. This comparative study between the two countries clearly showed the importance of the transition to clean energy sources. The UK’s efforts towards cleaner energy sources have led to reduced emissions of sulphur oxides (SOx) and particulate matter. In contrast, Poland’s heavy dependence on energy primarily from coal over the years has resulted in elevated pollution levels, notably in the concentration of pollutants such as particulate matter. This study also revealed that changes in emissions predominantly stem from technological advancements and economic activities. Additionally, political regulations and the gradual phase-out of specific fuels or energy-rich substances and their substitution with alternative energy sources have also imparted considerable influence.

History

Author affiliation

College of Science & Engineering Engineering

Version

  • VoR (Version of Record)

Published in

Applied Sciences

Volume

14

Issue

8

Pagination

3292

Publisher

MDPI AG

eissn

2076-3417

Copyright date

2024

Available date

2024-06-10

Language

en

Deposited by

Mrs Louise Thompson

Deposit date

2024-06-03

Data Access Statement

The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors on request. These data were derived from the following resources available in the public domain: Annual emissions of SO2 in the UK. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/65c5f51ccc433b000ca90b0f/sulphur_dioxide_key_emission_sources_2022.csv/ (accessed on 1 October 2023). Annual emission of nitrogen oxides in the UK. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/65c5f3be9c5b7f0012951bac/nitrogen_oxides_annual_emissions_2022.csv/preview (accessed on 1 October 2023). Emissions of air pollutants in the UK- Particulate matter (PM10 and PM205). https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/emissions-of-air-pollutants/emissions-of-air-pollutants-in-the-uk-particulate-matter-pm10-and-pm25 (accessed on 1 October 2023). European Air Quality Index. European Environmental Agency. https://airindex.eea.europa.eu/AQI/index.html (accessed on 29 March 2024). Air pollution in London. https://ourworldindata.org (accessed on 1 October 2023). Poland—air pollution country fact sheet. European Environmental Agency. https://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/air/country-fact-sheets/2023-country-fact-sheets/poland-air-pollution-country (accessed on 29 March 2024). UK Coal Production 1913–2022. https://www.statista.com/statistics/1125925/historic-coal-production-in-the-united-kingdom/ (accessed on 1 October 2023) World’s most polluted countries and regions. https://www.iqair.com/world-most-polluted-countries (accessed on 29 March 2024).

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