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Association of gut-related metabolites with outcome in acute heart failure

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journal contribution
posted on 2021-02-08, 15:04 authored by Muhammad Zubair Israr, Dennis Bernieh, Andrea Salzano, Shabana Cassambai, Yoshiyuki Yazaki, Liam M Heaney, Donald JL Jones, Leong L Ng, Toru Suzuki
Background
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut-related metabolite, is associated with heart failure (HF) outcomes. However, TMAO is the final product of a complex metabolic pathway (ie, choline/carnitine) that has never been entirely investigated in HF. The present study investigates a panel of metabolites involved in the TMAO-choline/carnitine metabolic pathway for their associations with outcome in acute HF patients.

Methods
In total, 806 plasma samples from acute HF patients were analyzed for TMAO, trimethyllysine, L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, γ-butyrobetaine, crotonobetaine, trimethylamine, betaine aldehyde, choline, and betaine using a developed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Associations with outcome of all-cause mortality (death) and a composite of all-cause mortality and/or rehospitalization caused by HF (death/HF) at 30 days and 1 year were investigated.

Results
TMAO, trimethyllysine, L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and γ-butyrobetaine were associated with death and death/HF at 30 days (short term; hazard ratio 1.30-1.49, P≤ .021) and at 1 year (long term; hazard ratio 1.15-1.25, P≤ .026) when adjusted for cardiac risk factors. L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine were superior for short-term outcomes whereas TMAO was the superior metabolite for association with long-term outcomes. Furthermore, acetyl-L-carnitine and L-carnitine were superior for in-hospital mortality and improved risk stratification when combined with current clinical risk scores (ie, Acute Decompensated HEart Failure National REgistry, Organized Program To Initiate Lifesaving Treatment In Hospitalized Patients With Heart Failure, and Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure; odds ratio (OR) ≥ 1.52, P≤ .020).

Conclusions
Carnitine-related metabolites show associations with adverse outcomes in acute HF, in particular L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine for short-term outcomes, and TMAO for long-term outcomes. Further studies are warranted to investigate the role and implications of carnitine metabolites including intervention in the pathogenesis of HF.

History

Citation

American Heart Journal, Volume 234, April 2021, Pages 71-80

Author affiliation

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences

Version

  • AM (Accepted Manuscript)

Published in

American Heart Journal

Volume

234

Pagination

17-80

Publisher

Elsevier BV

issn

0002-8703

Acceptance date

2021-01-12

Copyright date

2021

Available date

2022-01-14

Language

en

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