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celiker-et-al-2022-beyond-the-exponential-horn-a-bush-cricket-with-ear-canals-which-function-as-coupled-resonators.pdf (2.06 MB)

Beyond the exponential horn: a bush-cricket with ear canals which function as coupled resonators

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posted on 2024-02-08, 16:16 authored by E Celiker, C Woodrow, AY Rocha-Sánchez, BD Chivers, L Barrientos-Lozano, F Montealegre-Z
Bush-crickets have dual-input, tympanal ears located in the tibia of their forelegs. The sound will first of all reach the external sides of the tympana, before arriving at the internal sides through the bush-cricket's ear canal, the acoustic trachea (AT), with a phase lapse and pressure gain. It has been shown that for many bush-crickets, the AT has an exponential horn-shaped morphology and function, producing a significant pressure gain above a certain cut-off frequency. However, the underlying mechanism of different AT designs remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that the AT of the duetting Phaneropterinae bush-cricket Pterodichopetala cieloi function as coupled resonators, producing sound pressure gains at the sex-specific conspecific calling song frequency, and attenuating the remainder - a functioning mechanism significantly different from an exponential horn. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that despite the sexual dimorphism between the P. cieloi AT, both male and female AT have a similar biophysical mechanism. The analysis was carried out using an interdisciplinary approach, where micro-computed tomography was used for the morphological properties of the P. cieloi AT, and a finite-element analysis was applied on the precise tracheal geometry to further justify the experimental results and to go beyond experimental limitations.

Funding

European Research Council grant no. ERCCoG-2017-773067

History

Author affiliation

School of Engineering, University of Leicester

Version

  • VoR (Version of Record)

Published in

Royal Society Open Science

Volume

9

Issue

10

Pagination

220532

Publisher

The Royal Society

issn

2054-5703

eissn

2054-5703

Copyright date

2022

Available date

2024-02-08

Spatial coverage

England

Language

eng

Data Access Statement

The constructed STL files for the trachea geometries used in the numerical models (for six specimens) and the set-up of the three different numerical models (developed in COMSOL Multiphysics, v. 5.6) are available from the Dryad Digital Repository: https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.n2z34tn0j [51]. The data are provided in electronic supplementary material [52].

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