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COVID-19 classification using chest X-ray images based on fusion-assisted deep Bayesian optimization and Grad-CAM visualization.pdf (2.54 MB)

COVID-19 classification using chest X-ray images based on fusion-assisted deep Bayesian optimization and Grad-CAM visualization

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posted on 2023-02-03, 10:21 authored by A Hamza, M Attique Khan, SH Wang, M Alhaisoni, M Alharbi, HS Hussein, H Alshazly, YJ Kim, J Cha
The COVID-19 virus's rapid global spread has caused millions of illnesses and deaths. As a result, it has disastrous consequences for people's lives, public health, and the global economy. Clinical studies have revealed a link between the severity of COVID-19 cases and the amount of virus present in infected people's lungs. Imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and chest x-rays can detect COVID-19 (CXR). Manual inspection of these images is a difficult process, so computerized techniques are widely used. Deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) are a type of machine learning that is frequently used in computer vision applications, particularly in medical imaging, to detect and classify infected regions. These techniques can assist medical personnel in the detection of patients with COVID-19. In this article, a Bayesian optimized DCNN and explainable AI-based framework is proposed for the classification of COVID-19 from the chest X-ray images. The proposed method starts with a multi-filter contrast enhancement technique that increases the visibility of the infected part. Two pre-trained deep models, namely, EfficientNet-B0 and MobileNet-V2, are fine-tuned according to the target classes and then trained by employing Bayesian optimization (BO). Through BO, hyperparameters have been selected instead of static initialization. Features are extracted from the trained model and fused using a slicing-based serial fusion approach. The fused features are classified using machine learning classifiers for the final classification. Moreover, visualization is performed using a Grad-CAM that highlights the infected part in the image. Three publically available COVID-19 datasets are used for the experimental process to obtain improved accuracies of 98.8, 97.9, and 99.4%, respectively.

Funding

The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Khalid University for supporting this work through Research Groups Project under Grant No. RGP.2/16/43.

History

Citation

Hamza A, Attique Khan M, Wang S-H, Alhaisoni M, Alharbi M, Hussein HS, Alshazly H, Kim YJ and Cha J (2022) COVID-19 classification using chest X-ray images based on fusion-assisted deep Bayesian optimization and Grad-CAM visualization. Front. Public Health 10:1046296. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.1046296

Author affiliation

Department of Mathematics

Version

  • VoR (Version of Record)

Published in

Frontiers in Public Health

Volume

10

Pagination

1046296

Publisher

Frontiers Media SA

issn

2296-2565

eissn

2296-2565

Acceptance date

2022-10-12

Copyright date

2022

Available date

2023-02-03

Language

eng

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