University of Leicester
viruses-11-00520.pdf (1.2 MB)

Characterization of Flagellotropic, Chi-Like Salmonella Phages Isolated from Thai Poultry Farms

Download (1.2 MB)
journal contribution
posted on 2019-06-07, 08:19 authored by Preeda Phothaworn, Matthew Dunne, Rattaya Supokaivanich, Catherine Ong, Jiali Lim, Rutjawate Taharnklaew, Mongkol Vesaratchavest, Rabuesak Khumthong, Onanong Pringsulaka, Pravech Ajawatanawong, Jochen Klumpp, Nathan Brown, Mohammed Imam, Martha R. J. Clokie, Edouard E. Galyov, Sunee Korbsrisat
Despite a wealth of knowledge on Salmonella phages worldwide, little is known about poultry-associated Salmonella phages from Thailand. Here, we isolated 108 phages from Thai poultry farms that infect Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Phages STm101 and STm118 were identified as temperate Siphoviridae phages. Genome sequencing and analyses revealed these phages share approximately 96% nucleotide sequence similarity to phage SPN19, a member of the Chi-like virus genus. PCR amplification of the gene encoding capsid protein E of the Chi-like phage was positive for 50% of phage isolates, suggesting a predominance of this phage type among the sampled poultry farms. In addition to the flagella, two phages required the lipopolysaccharide to infect and lyse Salmonella. Furthermore, phylogenomic analysis demonstrated that phages STm101 and STm118 formed a monophyletic clade with phages isolated from Western countries, but not from closer isolated phages from Korea. However, further investigation and more phage isolates are required to investigate possible causes for this geographic distribution.


Acknowledgments: We kindly thank Lionello Bossi (Université Paris-Sud, France) for providing S. Tm MA8508, for phage propagation and S. Ryu (Seoul National University, Korea) for providing parental and ΔflgK strains of S. Tm [34]. Funding: The National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), Thailand, and the Betagro Science Center Co. Ltd., Thailand supported this work. Additionally, Phothaworn P. was supported by the Royal Thai Golden Jubilee studentship (PHD/0137/2556).



Viruses, 2019, 11(6), 520

Author affiliation

/Organisation/COLLEGE OF LIFE SCIENCES/School of Medicine/Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation


  • VoR (Version of Record)

Published in






Acceptance date


Copyright date


Available date


Publisher version


The following are available online at, Figure S1: A hierarchically clustering all Salmonella phage genomes according to their average amino acid identity, Figure S2: 50% of all Salmonella phage isolates from Thai poultry farms are putative members of the Chi-like virus genus, Table S1: Complete list of Salmonella strains used for phage host range analysis title, Table S2: List of all identified Salmonella phages with the country of phage isolation, Table S3: Infectivity of other Chi-like phages against 4 serovars of Salmonella enterica, Table S4: List of Salmonella phage STm101 annotated ORFs and gene products, Table S5: List of Salmonella phage STm118 annotated ORFs and gene products, Supplementary file 1 (CSV file):Video Identified Salmonella phages with accession numbersS1: title, Supplementary File 2 (TSV file): Average amino acid identities of Salmonella phages, Supplementary file 3 (TSV file): A shared core set of 28 orthologs from the sequences of 14 Chi-like phages, Supplementary file 4 (FNA file): The concatenated codonaligned nucleotide sequences of the 28 orthologs.



Usage metrics

    University of Leicester Publications


    No categories selected



    Ref. manager