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Effects of interventions targeting the systemic inflammatory response to cardiac surgery on clinical outcomes in adults (Review)

journal contribution
posted on 2023-12-14, 11:23 authored by RG Abbasciano, S Tomassini, MA Roman, A Rizzello, S Pathak, J Ramzi, C Lucarelli, G Layton, A Butt, F Lai, T Kumar, MJ Wozniak, GJ Murphy

Background

Organ injury is a common and severe complication of cardiac surgery that contributes to the majority of deaths. There are no effective treatment or prevention strategies. It has been suggested that innate immune system activation may have a causal role in organ injury. A wide range of organ protection interventions targeting the innate immune response have been evaluated in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in adult cardiac surgery patients, with inconsistent results in terms of effectiveness.


Objectives

The aim of the review was to summarise the results of RCTs of organ protection interventions targeting the innate immune response in adult cardiac surgery. The review considered whether the interventions had a treatment effect on inflammation, important clinical outcomes, or both.


Search methods

CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, conference proceedings and two trial registers were searched on October 2022 together with reference checking to identify additional studies.


Selection criteria

RCTs comparing organ protection interventions targeting the innate immune response versus placebo or no treatment in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery where the treatment effect on innate immune activation and on clinical outcomes of interest were reported.


Data collection and analysis

Searches, study selection, quality assessment, and data extractions were performed independently by pairs of authors. The primary inflammation outcomes were peak IL‐6 and IL‐8 concentrations in blood post‐surgery. The primary clinical outcome was in‐hospital or 30‐day mortality. Treatment effects were expressed as risk ratios (RR) and standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Meta‐analyses were performed using random effects models, and heterogeneity was assessed using I2.


Main results

A total of 40,255 participants from 328 RCTs were included in the synthesis. The effects of treatments on IL‐6 (SMD ‐0.77, 95% CI ‐0.97 to ‐0.58, I2 = 92%) and IL‐8 (SMD ‐0.92, 95% CI ‐1.20 to ‐0.65, I2 = 91%) were unclear due to heterogeneity. Heterogeneity for inflammation outcomes persisted across multiple sensitivity and moderator analyses. The pooled treatment effect for in‐hospital or 30‐day mortality was RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.91, I2 = 0%, suggesting a significant clinical benefit. There was little or no treatment effect on mortality when analyses were restricted to studies at low risk of bias. Post hoc analyses failed to demonstrate consistent treatment effects on inflammation and clinical outcomes. Levels of certainty for pooled treatment effects on the primary outcomes were very low.


Authors' conclusions

A systematic review of RCTs of organ protection interventions targeting innate immune system activation did not resolve uncertainty as to the effectiveness of these treatments, or the role of innate immunity in organ injury following cardiac surgery.

History

Author affiliation

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester

Version

  • VoR (Version of Record)

Published in

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

Volume

2023

Issue

10

Pagination

CD013584

Publisher

Wiley

issn

1465-1858

eissn

1469-493X

Copyright date

2023

Available date

2024-10-24

Spatial coverage

England

Language

eng

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