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Efficacy and safety of a targeted-release formulation of budesonide in patients with primary IgA nephropathy (NefIgArd): 2-year results from a randomised phase 3 trial

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posted on 2023-09-15, 13:58 authored by Richard Lafayette, Jens Kristensen, Andrew Stone, Jürgen Floege, Vladimir Tesař, Hernán Trimarchi, Hong Zhang, Necmi Eren, Alexander Paliege, Heather N Reich, Brad H Rovin, Jonathan Barratt, NefIgArd trial investigators

Background

IgA nephropathy is a chronic immune-mediated kidney disease and a major cause of kidney failure worldwide. The gut mucosal immune system is implicated in its pathogenesis, and Nefecon is a novel, oral, targeted-release formulation of budesonide designed to act at the gut mucosal level. We present findings from the 2-year, phase 3 NefIgArd trial of Nefecon in patients with IgA nephropathy.

Methods

In this phase 3, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with primary IgA nephropathy, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 35-90 mL/min per 1·73 m2, and persistent proteinuria (urine protein-creatinine ratio ≥0·8 g/g or proteinuria ≥1 g/24 h) despite optimised renin-angiotensin system blockade were enrolled at 132 hospital-based clinical sites in 20 countries worldwide. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 16 mg/day oral capsules of Nefecon or matching placebo for 9 months, followed by a 15-month observational follow-up period off study drug. Randomisation via an interactive response technology system was stratified according to baseline proteinuria (<2 or ≥2 g/24 h), baseline eGFR (<60 or ≥60 mL/min per 1·73 m2), and region (Asia-Pacific, Europe, North America, or South America). Patients, investigators, and site staff were masked to treatment assignment throughout the 2-year trial. Optimised supportive care was also continued throughout the trial. The primary efficacy endpoint was time-weighted average of eGFR over 2 years. Efficacy and safety analyses were done in the full analysis set (ie, all randomly assigned patients). The trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03643965, and is completed.

Findings

Patients were recruited to the NefIgArd trial between Sept 5, 2018, and Jan 20, 2021, with 364 patients (182 per treatment group) randomly assigned in the full analysis set. 240 (66%) patients were men and 124 (34%) were women, and 275 (76%) identified as White. The time-weighted average of eGFR over 2 years showed a statistically significant treatment benefit with Nefecon versus placebo (difference 5·05 mL/min per 1·73 m2 [95% CI 3·24 to 7·38], p<0·0001), with a time-weighted average change of -2·47 mL/min per 1·73 m2 (95% CI -3·88 to -1·02) reported with Nefecon and -7·52 mL/min per 1·73 m2 (-8·83 to -6·18) reported with placebo. The most commonly reported treatment-emergent adverse events during treatment with Nefecon were peripheral oedema (31 [17%] patients, vs placebo, seven [4%] patients), hypertension (22 [12%] vs six [3%]), muscle spasms (22 [12%] vs seven [4%]), acne (20 [11%] vs two [1%]), and headache (19 [10%] vs 14 [8%]). No treatment-related deaths were reported.

Interpretation

A 9-month treatment period with Nefecon provided a clinically relevant reduction in eGFR decline and a durable reduction in proteinuria versus placebo, providing support for a disease-modifying effect in patients with IgA nephropathy. Nefecon was also well tolerated, with a safety profile as expected for a locally acting oral budesonide product.

Funding

Calliditas Therapeutics.

Funding

Calliditas Therapeutics

History

Author affiliation

College of Medicine Biological Sciences and Psychology, University of Leicester

Version

  • AM (Accepted Manuscript)

Published in

Lancet (London, England)

Volume

402

Issue

10405

Pagination

859-870

Publisher

Elsevier BV

issn

0140-6736

eissn

1474-547X

Copyright date

2023

Available date

2024-02-13

Spatial coverage

England

Language

eng

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