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Genetic analyses favour an ancient and natural origin of elephants on Borneo

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posted on 2018-10-15, 10:35 authored by Reeta Sharma, Benoit Goossens, Rasmus Heller, Rita Rasteiro, Nurzhafarina Othman, Michael W. Bruford, Lounès Chikhi
The origin of the elephant on the island of Borneo remains elusive. Research has suggested two alternative hypotheses: the Bornean elephant stems either from a recent introduction in the 17th century or from an ancient colonization several hundreds of thousands years ago. Lack of elephant fossils has been interpreted as evidence for a very recent introduction, whereas mtDNA divergence from other Asian elephants has been argued to favor an ancient colonization. We investigated the demographic history of Bornean elephants using full-likelihood and approximate Bayesian computation analyses. Our results are at odds with both the recent and ancient colonization hypotheses, and favour a third intermediate scenario. We find that genetic data favour a scenario in which Bornean elephants experienced a bottleneck during the last glacial period, possibly as a consequence of the colonization of Borneo, and from which it has slowly recovered since. Altogether the data support a natural colonization of Bornean elephants at a time when large terrestrial mammals could colonise from the Sunda shelf when sea levels were much lower. Our results are important not only in understanding the unique history of the colonization of Borneo by elephants, but also for their long-term conservation.

Funding

This work was supported by Portuguese Science Foundation (“Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia” (FCT)) individual fellowship (ref. SFRH/BPD/64837/2009) to RS and FCT project (ref. PTDC/BIA-BDE/71299/2006) to LC. LC was also supported by the “Laboratoire d’Excellence (LABEX)” entitled TULIP (ANR -10-LABX-41) and the “Laboratoire International Associé” BEEG-B (Bioinformatics, Ecology, Evolution, Genomics and Behaviour). BG and MWB were supported by a grant from the Darwin Initiative for the Survival of Species (Grant no. 09/016, DEFRA, UK). BG was supported by grants from US Fish and Wildlife Service Asian Elephant Conservation Fund, Elephant Family and Columbus Zoo. RH was supported by a Danish Research Council (DFF-FNU) grant and a Villum Foundation Young Investigator grant. RR was supported by the Leverhulme Trust (UK) under Programme Grant F/00 212/AM. We thank B. Parreira for her help with analytical methods. This research used the ALICE High Performance Computing Facility at the University of Leicester.

History

Citation

Scientific Reports, 2018, 8, 880

Version

  • VoR (Version of Record)

Published in

Scientific Reports

Publisher

Nature Research (part of Springer Nature)

eissn

2045-2322

Acceptance date

2017-11-18

Copyright date

2018

Available date

2018-10-15

Publisher version

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-17042-5#Abs1

Notes

Supplementary information accompanies this paper at https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-17042-5.

Language

en

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