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Genome-wide expansion and reorganization during grass evolution: from 30 Mb chromosomes in rice and Brachypodium to 550 Mb in Avena

journal contribution
posted on 2024-01-11, 12:59 authored by Q Liu, L Ye, M Li, Z Wang, G Xiong, Y Ye, T Tu, T Schwarzacher, JS Heslop-Harrison
Background: The BOP (Bambusoideae, Oryzoideae, and Pooideae) clade of the Poaceae has a common ancestor, with similarities to the genomes of rice, Oryza sativa (2n = 24; genome size 389 Mb) and Brachypodium, Brachypodium distachyon (2n = 10; 271 Mb). We exploit chromosome-scale genome assemblies to show the nature of genomic expansion, structural variation, and chromosomal rearrangements from rice and Brachypodium, to diploids in the tribe Aveneae (e.g., Avena longiglumis, 2n = 2x = 14; 3,961 Mb assembled to 3,850 Mb in chromosomes). Results: Most of the Avena chromosome arms show relatively uniform expansion over the 10-fold to 15-fold genome-size increase. Apart from non-coding sequence diversification and accumulation around the centromeres, blocks of genes are not interspersed with blocks of repeats, even in subterminal regions. As in the tribe Triticeae, blocks of conserved synteny are seen between the analyzed species with chromosome fusion, fission, and nesting (insertion) events showing deep evolutionary conservation of chromosome structure during genomic expansion. Unexpectedly, the terminal gene-rich chromosomal segments (representing about 50 Mb) show translocations between chromosomes during speciation, with homogenization of genome-specific repetitive elements within the tribe Aveneae. Newly-formed intergenomic translocations of similar extent are found in the hexaploid A. sativa. Conclusions: The study provides insight into evolutionary mechanisms and speciation in the BOP clade, which is valuable for measurement of biodiversity, development of a clade-wide pangenome, and exploitation of genomic diversity through breeding programs in Poaceae.

History

Author affiliation

Department of Genetics and Genome Biology, University of Leicester

Version

  • VoR (Version of Record)

Published in

BMC Plant Biology

Volume

23

Issue

1

Publisher

Springer Science and Business Media LLC

eissn

1471-2229

Copyright date

2023

Available date

2024-01-11

Language

en

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