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Improved modelling of SEP event onset within the WSA–Enlil–SEPMOD framework

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posted on 2024-03-27, 13:27 authored by Erika Palmerio, Janet G Luhmann, M Leila Mays, Ronald M Caplan, David Lario, Ian G Richardson, Kathryn Whitman, Christina O Lee, Beatriz Sanchez-CanoBeatriz Sanchez-Cano, Nicolas Wijsen, Yan Li, Carlota Cardoso, Marco Pinto, Daniel Heyner, Daniel Schmid, Hans-Ulrich Auster, David Fischer
Multi-spacecraft observations of solar energetic particle (SEP) events not only enable a deeper understanding and development of particle acceleration and transport theories but also provide important constraints for model validation efforts. However, because of computational limitations, a given physics-based SEP model is usually best suited to capture a particular phase of an SEP event, rather than its whole development from onset through decay. For example, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of the heliosphere often incorporate solar transients only at the outer boundary of their so-called coronal domain – usually set at a heliocentric distance of 20–30 R⊙. This means that particle acceleration at coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven shocks is also computed from this boundary onwards, leading to simulated SEP event onsets that can be many hours later than observed, since shock waves can form much lower in the solar corona. In this work, we aim to improve the modelled onset of SEP events by inserting a “fixed source” of particle injection at the outer boundary of the coronal domain of the coupled WSA–Enlil 3D MHD model of the heliosphere. The SEP model that we employ for this effort is Solar Energetic Particle MODel (SEPMOD), a physics-based test-particle code based on a field line tracer and adiabatic invariant conservation. We apply our initial tests and results of SEPMOD’s fixed-source option to the 2021 October 9 SEP event, which was detected at five well-separated locations in the inner heliosphere – Parker Solar Probe, STEREO-A, Solar Orbiter, BepiColombo, and near-Earth spacecraft.

History

Author affiliation

College of Science & Engineering/Physics & Astronomy

Version

  • VoR (Version of Record)

Published in

Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate

Volume

14

Issue

Topical Issue - CMEs, ICMEs, SEPs: Observational, Modelling, and Forecasting Advances

Publisher

EDP Sciences

eissn

2115-7251

Copyright date

2024

Available date

2024-03-27

Language

en

Deposited by

Ms Lydia Wallman

Deposit date

2024-03-26

Rights Retention Statement

  • No

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