University of Leicester

File(s) under permanent embargo

Reason: The file associated with this record is under embargo until 12 months after publication, in accordance with the publisher's self-archiving policy. The full text may be available through the publisher links provided above.

Missed opportunities for timely recognition of chronic limb-threatening ischaemia in patients undergoing a major amputation: a population-based cohort study utilising the United Kingdom’s Clinical Practice Research Datalink

Version 3 2020-05-07, 11:14
Version 2 2020-05-07, 11:04
Version 1 2020-05-07, 11:02
journal contribution
posted on 2020-05-07, 11:14 authored by Andrew Nickinson, Briana Coles, Francesco Zaccardi, Laura Gray, Tanya Payne, Matthew Bown, Robert Davies, Kamlesh Khunti, Robert Sayers


Opportunities for timely recognition of chronic limb-threatening ischaemia (CLTI) within primary care, such as performing cardiovascular assessment during clinical consultation, are possibly being missed. This study aims to investigate for potential ‘missed opportunities’ within primary care.


Population-based cohort study, utilising the UK’s Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). Patients undergoing a major amputation for CLTI between 01/01/2000-31/12/2016 were included. Primary care consultation and patient clinical data within the one-year period prior to amputation were extracted from the CPRD. Dates of last primary care consultation and cardiovascular assessment prior to amputation were evaluated. Timings of latest cardiovascular assessments were stratified into ‘recent’ (7-90 days before amputation) and ‘late’ (>91 days).


3260 patients were included. In the year prior to amputation, patients attended a median of 19 [9-32] primary care consultations, however prescription of secondary preventative medications was poor (antiplatelet=49.7%, lipid lowering agent=40.7%). Overall, 2175 patients (66.7%) attended a primary care consultation 7-30 days before their amputation. However, only 416 (12.8%) underwent a cardiovascular assessment within this period, with 2073 (63.6%) undergoing no assessment within 90 days of their amputation. Of these 2073 patients, 1230 (59.3%) had a primary care consultation 7-30 days before their procedure. Patients undergoing ‘late’ assessment were younger (p=.003), with higher systolic (p=.008) and diastolic (p=.001) blood pressures than those undergoing ‘recent’ assessment. Differences were also observed between timings of assessment by deprivation (p=.003) and ethnicity (p=.006).


Missed opportunities for timely recognition potentially exist and may be related to age, deprivation and ethnicity. Further work is required to investigate these factors, as well as individual amputations to identify the causes precipitating amputation. Greater emphasis on the medical management of peripheral arterial disease and identifying cardiovascular risk factors in patients who may not fit the ‘at risk’ stereotype, are also required.


ATON and TP are funded through the George Davies Charitable Trust (Registered Charity Number 1024818). RDS is part funded through this Trust. BC, FZ and KK acknowledge support from the National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care East Midlands (NIHR CLAHRC-EM) and Leicester Biomedical Research Centre. The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study, the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data, or the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.



European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (2020) In Press


  • AM (Accepted Manuscript)

Published in

European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery





Acceptance date


Copyright date


Publisher version



Presented as an oral presentation in the ‘PAD’ scientific session at the 33rd ESVS Annual Meeting, Hamburg, Germany, 24th-27th September 2019. Presented as an oral presentation at the Vascular Society of Great Britain and Ireland’s Annual Scientific Meeting (Manchester, United Kingdom, 27th-29th November 2019) and nominated for the Sol Cohen Prize.



Usage metrics

    University of Leicester Publications


    No categories selected


    Ref. manager