University of Leicester
Molecular mechanisms of cell death: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2018.pdf (2.77 MB)

Molecular mechanisms of cell death: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2018.

Download (2.77 MB)
journal contribution
posted on 2019-07-31, 11:23 authored by L Galluzzi, I Vitale, SA Aaronson, JM Abrams, D Adam, P Agostinis, ES Alnemri, L Altucci, I Amelio, DW Andrews, M Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, AV Antonov, E Arama, EH Baehrecke, NA Barlev, NG Bazan, F Bernassola, MJM Bertrand, K Bianchi, MV Blagosklonny, K Blomgren, C Borner, P Boya, C Brenner, M Campanella, E Candi, D Carmona-Gutierrez, F Cecconi, FK-M Chan, NS Chandel, EH Cheng, JE Chipuk, JA Cidlowski, A Ciechanover, GM Cohen, M Conrad, JR Cubillos-Ruiz, PE Czabotar, V D'Angiolella, TM Dawson, VL Dawson, V De Laurenzi, R De Maria, K-M Debatin, RJ DeBerardinis, M Deshmukh, N Di Daniele, F Di Virgilio, VM Dixit, SJ Dixon, CS Duckett, BD Dynlacht, WS El-Deiry, JW Elrod, GM Fimia, S Fulda, AJ García-Sáez, AD Garg, C Garrido, E Gavathiotis, P Golstein, E Gottlieb, DR Green, LA Greene, H Gronemeyer, A Gross, G Hajnoczky, JM Hardwick, IS Harris, MO Hengartner, C Hetz, H Ichijo, M Jäättelä, B Joseph, PJ Jost, PP Juin, WJ Kaiser, M Karin, T Kaufmann, O Kepp, A Kimchi, RN Kitsis, DJ Klionsky, RA Knight, S Kumar, SW Lee, JJ Lemasters, B Levine, A Linkermann, SA Lipton, RA Lockshin, C López-Otín, SW Lowe, T Luedde, E Lugli, M MacFarlane, F Madeo, M Malewicz, W Malorni, G Manic, J-C Marine, SJ Martin, J-C Martinou, JP Medema, P Mehlen, P Meier, S Melino, EA Miao, JD Molkentin, UM Moll, C Muñoz-Pinedo, S Nagata, G Nuñez, A Oberst, M Oren, M Overholtzer, M Pagano, T Panaretakis, M Pasparakis, JM Penninger, DM Pereira, S Pervaiz, ME Peter, M Piacentini, P Pinton, JHM Prehn, H Puthalakath, GA Rabinovich, M Rehm, R Rizzuto, CMP Rodrigues, DC Rubinsztein, T Rudel, KM Ryan, E Sayan, L Scorrano, F Shao, Y Shi, J Silke, H-U Simon, A Sistigu, BR Stockwell, A Strasser, G Szabadkai, SWG Tait, D Tang, N Tavernarakis, A Thorburn, Y Tsujimoto, B Turk, T Vanden Berghe, P Vandenabeele, MG Vander Heiden, A Villunger, HW Virgin, KH Vousden, D Vucic, EF Wagner, H Walczak, D Wallach, Y Wang, JA Wells, W Wood, J Yuan, Z Zakeri, B Zhivotovsky, L Zitvogel, G Melino, G Kroemer
Over the past decade, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) has formulated guidelines for the definition and interpretation of cell death from morphological, biochemical, and functional perspectives. Since the field continues to expand and novel mechanisms that orchestrate multiple cell death pathways are unveiled, we propose an updated classification of cell death subroutines focusing on mechanistic and essential (as opposed to correlative and dispensable) aspects of the process. As we provide molecularly oriented definitions of terms including intrinsic apoptosis, extrinsic apoptosis, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)-driven necrosis, necroptosis, ferroptosis, pyroptosis, parthanatos, entotic cell death, NETotic cell death, lysosome-dependent cell death, autophagy-dependent cell death, immunogenic cell death, cellular senescence, and mitotic catastrophe, we discuss the utility of neologisms that refer to highly specialized instances of these processes. The mission of the NCCD is to provide a widely accepted nomenclature on cell death in support of the continued development of the field.


I.V. is supported by the Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro (AIRC, IG 2017 grant number 20417), Ministero Italiano della Salute (grant number RF_GR-2011-02351355), Ministero Italiano dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca (MIUR, Programma per i Giovani Ricercatori “Rita Levi Montalcini” 2010). G.K. is supported by the French Ligue contre le Cancer (équipe labellisée); Agence National de la Recherche (ANR)—Projets blancs; ANR under the frame of E-Rare-2, the ERA-Net for Research on Rare Diseases; Association pour la recherche sur le cancer (ARC); Cancéropôle Ile-de-France; Institut National du Cancer (INCa); Institut Universitaire de France; Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale (FRM); the European Commission (ArtForce); the European Research Council (ERC); the LeDucq Foundation; the LabEx Immuno-Oncology; the SIRIC Stratified Oncology Cell DNA Repair and Tumor Immune Elimination (SOCRATE); the SIRIC Cancer Research and Personalized Medicine (CARPEM); and the Paris Alliance of Cancer Research Institutes (PACRI).



Cell Death Differ, 2018, 25 (3), pp. 486-541

Author affiliation

/Organisation/COLLEGE OF LIFE SCIENCES/Biological Sciences/Old Departments Pre 01 Aug 2015/Department of Biochemistry (Pre 01 Aug 2015)


  • VoR (Version of Record)

Published in

Cell Death Differ


Springer Nature



Acceptance date


Copyright date


Available date




Usage metrics

    University of Leicester Publications


    No categories selected


    Ref. manager