University of Leicester
Nishitani_et_al_EPS_2019.pdf (13.71 MB)
Download file

Review of the accomplishments of mid-latitude Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) HF radars

Download (13.71 MB)
journal contribution
posted on 2019-06-18, 09:31 authored by N Nishitani, JM Ruohoniemi, M Lester, JBH Baker, AV Koustov, SG Shepherd, G Chisham, T Hori, EG Thomas, RA Makarevich, A Marchaudon, P Ponomarenko, JA Wild, SE Milan, WA Bristow, J Devlin, E Miller, RA Greenwald, T Ogawa, T Kikuchi
The Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) is a network of high-frequency (HF) radars located in the high- and mid-latitude regions of both hemispheres that is operated under international cooperation. The network was originally designed for monitoring the dynamics of the ionosphere and upper atmosphere in the high-latitude regions. However, over the last approximately 15 years, SuperDARN has expanded into the mid-latitude regions. With radar coverage that now extends continuously from auroral to sub-auroral and mid-latitudes, a wide variety of new scientific findings have been obtained. In this paper, the background of mid-latitude SuperDARN is presented at first. Then, the accomplishments made with mid-latitude SuperDARN radars are reviewed in five specified scientific and technical areas: convection, ionospheric irregularities, HF propagation analysis, ion-neutral interactions, and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. Finally, the present status of mid-latitude SuperDARN is updated and directions for future research are discussed. [Figure not available: see fulltext.].


SuperDARN is a collection of radars funded by national scientific funding agencies of Australia, Canada, China, France, Italy, Japan, Norway, South Africa, United Kingdom and the United States of America. Organization of the workshops for writing up the present review paper was supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) (Grant-in-Aid for Specially Promoted Research): Study of dynamical variation of particles and waves in the inner magnetosphere using ground-based network observations (PWING), Project Number: 16H06286. Completion of the present review paper was partly supported by JSPS (Grand-in-Aid for Scientific Research), Project Number: 18KK0099. Part of the work of TH was done at the ERG-Science Center operated by ISAS/JAXA and Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research (ISEE) /Nagoya University.



Progress in Earth and Planetary Science, 2019, 6:27

Author affiliation

/Organisation/COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING/Department of Physics and Astronomy


  • VoR (Version of Record)

Published in

Progress in Earth and Planetary Science


SpringerOpen (part of Springer Nature), Japan Geoscience Union



Acceptance date


Copyright date


Available date


Publisher version


The SuperDARN datasets shown in this paper are available in the Virginia Tech website at: The AACGM-v2 software for calculating geomagnetic coordinates of the SuperDARN radars is available in the Dartmouth College web server at:;The Correction to this article has been published in Progress in Earth and Planetary Science 2019 6:53 After publication of this article (Nishitani et al. 2019), it was brought to our attention that the figure 5 is incorrect, where the positions of DCE and SPS were misplaced. The correct figure 5 is as below, the original publication has been corrected.



Usage metrics

    University of Leicester Publications