Sedimentation associated with glaciovolcanism: a review
journal contributionposted on 2022-03-24, 11:05 authored by John Laidlaw Smellie
Three discrete categories of sedimentary deposits are associated with glaciovolcanism: englacial cavity, jökulhlaup and lahar. Englacial cavity deposits are found in water-filled chambers in the lee of active glaciovolcanoes or at a locus of enhanced geothermal heat flux. The cavities provide a depocentre for the accumulation of debris, either abundant fresh juvenile debris with sparse dropstones (associated with active glaciovolcanism) or polymict basal glacial debris in which dropstones are abundant (associated with geothermal hot spots). Described examples are uncommon. By contrast, volcanogenic jökulhlaup deposits are abundant, mainly in Iceland, where they form extensive sandar sequences associated with ice-covered volcanoes. Jökulhlaups form as a result of the sudden subglacial discharge of stored meltwater. Analogous deposits known as glaciovolcanic sheet-like sequences represent the ultra-proximal lateral equivalents deposited under the ice. Glaciovolcanic lahars are associated with ice-capped volcanoes. They form as a result of explosive eruptions through relatively thin ice or following dome collapse, and they trigger mainly supraglacial rather than subglacial meltwater escape. Sediment transport and depositional processes are similar in jökulhaups and lahars and are dominated by debris flow and hyperconcentrated or supercritical flow modes during the main flood stage, although the proportions of the principal lithofacies are different.
CitationGeological Society, London, Special Publications, 520, 1 March 2022, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP520-2021-135
Author affiliationSchool of Geography, Geology and Environment, University of Leicester
- AM (Accepted Manuscript)