University of Leicester
a1e28e75958e6bee1bcd2b7995cbe7fb.pdf (530.01 kB)

The General Practitioner Prompt Study to Reduce Cardiovascular and Renal Complications in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Renal Complications: Protocol and Baseline Characteristics for a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

Download (530.01 kB)
journal contribution
posted on 2019-02-06, 15:37 authored by A Willis, W Crasto, L Gray, H Dallosso, G Waheed, G Gray, MJ Davies, K Khunti
BACKGROUND: Adherence to evidence-based cardiovascular risk factor targets in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria has shown long-term reduction in mortality and morbidity. Strategies to achieve such adherence have been delivered at individual patient level and are not cost-effective. Health care professional-level intervention has the potential to promote better adherence at lower cost. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a multifactorial technology-driven intervention comprising health care professional training, a software prompt installed on practice systems, clinician email support, and enhanced performance and feedback reporting. METHODS: A cluster randomized trial will be performed where the primary outcome is the proportion of eligible patients meeting tight cardiovascular risk factor targets, including systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP; BP<130/80 mm Hg) and total cholesterol (TC; TC<3.5 mmol/L) at 24 months. Secondary outcomes include proportion of patients with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <58 mmol/mol (7.5%), change in medication prescribing, changes in microalbuminuria and renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR), incidence of major adverse CV events and mortality, and coding accuracy. Cost-effectiveness of the intervention will also be assessed. RESULTS: Among 2721 eligible patients, mean age was 62.9 (SD 10.0) years, and duration of diabetes was 10.46 (SD 7.22) years. Mean HbA1c was 59.3 (SD 17.4) mmol/mol; mean systolic and diastolic BP (mm Hg) were 134.3 (SD 14.6) and 76.1 (SD 9.5) mm Hg, respectively; and mean TC was 4.1 (SD 0.98) mmol/L. Overall, 131 out of 2721 (4.81%) patients achieved all 3 "tight" cardiovascular risk factor targets. Cardiovascular risk factor burden increased two-fold in those with eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2 compared with those with eGFR≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Prevalence of microalbuminuria was 22.76%. In total, 1076 out of 2721 (39.54%) patients were coded for microalbuminuria or proteinuria on their primary care medical record. CONCLUSIONS: The general practitioner prompt study is the largest UK primary care-based, technology-driven, randomized controlled trial to support intensive intervention in high-risk group of multiethnic individuals with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. This paper provides contemporary estimates for prevalent cardiovascular disease and adherence to evidence-based cardiovascular risk factor targets at baseline in a population with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. The main trial results, including cost-effectiveness data, will be submitted for publication in 2018. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number ISRCTN14918517; (Archived by WebCite at REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER: RR1-10.2196/9588.


This research was supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care - East Midlands and NIHR Leicester Biomedical Research Centre and the Centre for Black and Minority Ethnic Health.



JMIR Research Protocols, 2018, 7 (6), pp. e152-?

Author affiliation

/Organisation/COLLEGE OF LIFE SCIENCES/School of Medicine/Department of Health Sciences


  • VoR (Version of Record)

Published in

JMIR Research Protocols


JMIR Publications



Acceptance date


Copyright date


Available date


Publisher version



Usage metrics

    University of Leicester Publications


    No categories selected



    Ref. manager