The ultra-long GRB 220627A at z = 3.08
Context. GRB 220627A is a rare burst with two distinct γ-ray emission episodes separated by almost 1000 s that triggered the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor twice. High-energy GeV emission was detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope coincident with the first emission episode but not the second. The discovery of the optical afterglow with MeerLICHT led to MUSE observations which secured the burst redshift to z'., ='., 3.08, making this the most distant ultra-long gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected to date. Aims. The progenitors of some ultra-long GRBs have been suggested in the literature to be different to those of normal long GRBs. Our aim is to determine whether the afterglow and host properties of GRB 220627A agree with this interpretation. Methods. We performed empirical and theoretical modelling of the afterglow data within the external forward shock framework, and determined the metallicity of the GRB environment through modelling the absorption lines in the MUSE spectrum. Results. Our optical data show evidence for a jet break in the light curve at 1.2 days, while our theoretical modelling shows a preference for a homogeneous circumburst medium. Our forward shock parameters are typical for the wider GRB population, and we find that the environment of the burst is characterised by a sub-solar metallicity. Conclusions. Our observations and modelling of GRB 220627A do not suggest that a different progenitor compared to the progenitor of normal long GRBs is required. We find that more observations of ultra-long GRBs are needed to determine if they form a separate population with distinct prompt and afterglow features, and possibly distinct progenitors.
Author affiliationSchool of Physics & Astronomy, University of Leicester
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