University of Leicester
2014KHAMKERQPhD.pdf (8.33 MB)

Ambiphilic C-H activation routes to heterocycles

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posted on 2014-06-16, 13:37 authored by Qudsia Khamker
This thesis describes investigations of Cp*Rh- and (p-Cy)Ru-catalysed C-H functionalisation reactions of various substrates with alkynes and alkenes for the formation of several heterocycles and carbocycles. Mechanistic studies and DFT calculations are also presented. Chapter One includes a discussion of different mechanisms of C-H activation namely oxidative addition, σ-bond metathesis, 1,2-addition, electrophilic activation and AMLA/CMD. The applications of these different mechanisms of C-H activation in catalysis are also discussed with a particular emphasis on the use of AMLA/CMD in direct arylation reactions. Chapter Two gives an overview of stoichiometric and catalytic studies of AMLA C-H activation and subsequent reactivity with alkynes at Ir, Rh, and Ru. The results of Cp*Rh- and some (p-Cy)Ru-catalysed reactions of C-phenylpyrazoles with alkynes are presented. N-H and C-H activation occurs, leading to heterocycles. Mechanistic studies and DFT calculations show that C-H activation is reversible and rate limiting in the cases examined. Chapter Three is similar to Chapter Two but focusses on reactions with alkenes. The Cp*Rh-catalysed reactions of C-phenylpyrazoles with alkenes lead to mono or divinyl products which may undergo further aza-Michael cyclisations if the alkene is a good Michael acceptor. Mechanistic studies and DFT calculations are also discussed. Chapter Four deals with Cp*Rh-catalysed coupling reactions of other directing groups, including imidazole, imidazoline, pyrazolidinone, hydrazine, carboxylic acid and oxime with alkynes. Again, there is discussion on the different factors affecting product selectivity. Chapter Five gives a summary of all the conclusions on the work presented in this thesis. Throughout the thesis, all new compounds are characterised spectroscopically and several compounds have been characterised by X-ray crystallography.



Davies, David L.

Date of award


Author affiliation

Department of Chemistry

Awarding institution

University of Leicester

Qualification level

  • Doctoral

Qualification name

  • PhD



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