University of Leicester
2020erlinaphd.pdf (5.99 MB)

Development of Teaching and Learning Resources (TLRs) to Challenge Student’s Alternative Conceptions of Core Ideas in General Chemistry Course

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posted on 2020-07-15, 20:05 authored by Erlina
Previous research has proved that chemistry is perceived to be a difficult subject for many students. Abstract concepts and the inability of students to make connections between the macroscopic, sub-microscopic and symbolic levels are believed to be the main reasons. To overcome this issue, this study focused on the development of teaching and learning resources (TLRs) that embedded these three levels of representation to challenge students’ alternative conceptions in general chemistry. An action research methodology was employed to develop the TLRs. The four-stages, design, develop, evaluate and reflection were framed in a cyclic form. The design of the TLRs began by reviewing the literature to find common alternative conceptions to develop a plot which led to the development of the prototype. Pilot studies were used to refine the design of the final TLRs. Three TLRs have been produced; the Shape of Molecule Cards and Molecular Model Building, Leaflet of Electronegativity, and the Video of Intermolecular Forces. The results of these pilot studies suggested that all TLRs were suitable for use in the classroom following some minor changes based on student feedback. The findings of the pilot studies show that all students responded positively to the TLRs. Both quantitative and qualitative data analysis methods were used as the triangulation process to improve the validity and reliability of the research. The evaluation process started by implementing the TLRs at the University of Tanjungpura, Indonesia. The TLRs had a measurable impact on student understanding of the selected concepts and successfully challenged common alternate conceptions. These TLRs may be of further use to educators and educational researchers seeking to support student learning and gain a deeper insight into how students learn chemistry, and the methodology employed will be easily transferable to the development and evaluation of TLRs across a range of disciplines.



Dylan P. Williams; Chris Cane

Date of award


Author affiliation

School of Chemistry

Awarding institution

University of Leicester

Qualification level

  • Doctoral

Qualification name

  • PhD



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