University of Leicester
2021ThamrongratPPHD.pdf (16.04 MB)

The Effectiveness of Augmented Reality with Gamification in Learning 3D Geometry

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posted on 2021-09-09, 12:01 authored by Pornpon Thamrongrat
Augmented Reality (AR) technology facilitates the learning of 3D geometry because it allows students to easily manipulate 3D geometric shapes. Besides, gamification can further enhance the potential of AR technology as an educational tool by increasing user engagement. However, some methodological limitations were identified in the existing work on this specific topic. First, one of the major drawbacks was the lack of control groups for evaluating the effect of learning geometry with the conventional teaching methods as compared to that of the AR-based approaches. Second, the AR application assessment focused on learning outcomes, neglecting the user experience aspect.
Therefore, the main research question of this PhD research project was to explore to what extent AR-based applications with gamification could make learning 3D geometry more effective and engaging for students as compared with the traditional 2D approach. To address this question, two empirical studies were conducted. In Study 1, an AR application for learning cross-sectional shapes and variables in 3D geometry was developed. The AR-based approach was compared with the traditional chalk-and-board one by involving sixty 12-16 year-olds from two schools in Thailand. In Study 2, how certain gamification elements - Badges, Points and Timer - influenced the motivational effect of the AR application in the learning of 3D geometric shapes was examined. It involved 150 students of 12-16 years old. A motivation questionnaire for measuring Interest, Confidence and Intention to Use level was constructed. Results indicated that the AR classes showed significantly stronger learning effects than the traditional ones, especially for more complex geometric concepts. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the motivational effect between the gamified and non-gamified AR applications, and Points had a stronger learning effect than Badges or Timer. One implication for designing gamified AR educational applications is that time pressure seems an inappropriate gamification element.



Effie Law

Date of award


Author affiliation

Department of Informatics

Awarding institution

University of Leicester

Qualification level

  • Doctoral

Qualification name

  • PhD



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