University of Leicester
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The effectiveness of screening for type 2 diabetes within a community pharmacy setting

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posted on 2016-04-11, 14:08 authored by Andrew W. Willis
The overall aim of the programme of work was to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of pharmacy based screening programmes for type 2 diabetes. A key component of this was to summarise pharmacists’ views and experiences relating to the acceptability and feasibility of the screening methods chosen, as well as gathering more general views and experiences of the provision of screening services by community pharmacists. A systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken in order to evaluate the level of success of previous screening interventions initiated by community pharmacists. A pragmatic randomised controlled trial using existing screening tools for type 2 diabetes was then carried out: the Pharmacy Based Screening for High Risk Individuals using Stepwise Methods (PRISM) study. Key Findings: • Previous studies have shown that pharmacy initiated screening for cardiovascular disease risk factors such as diabetes can identify a high proportion of those who are at ‘high risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, studies are often of low quality and limited by incomplete follow up and poor reporting of methods. • The screening methods used in the PRISM study resulted in a high screening yield compared to other similar opportunistic methods of screening • The screening methods used were acceptable and feasible from a pharmacist’s point of view, and resulted in a number of benefits to pharmacies. These benefits included: improved job satisfaction and morale within the pharmacy team, improvements in diabetes knowledge and consultation skills and improved relationships with customers. • The qualitative study carried out highlighted the variety of work and the different roles occupied by pharmacists and pharmacy staff when carrying out screening for type 2 diabetes. Based on the findings of this programme of work, implications for future research and clinical practice are provided in order to increase the provision of screening for type 2 diabetes to improve uptake in people who are at highest risk.



Khunti, Kamlesh; Davies, Melanie

Date of award


Author affiliation

Department of Health Sciences

Awarding institution

University of Leicester

Qualification level

  • Doctoral

Qualification name

  • PhD



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